Connect with us

News

Quanta Magazine

Published

on

Close your eyes and imagine bacteria. Perhaps you’re picturing our intestinal Escherichia coli, or the shiny golden balls of staphylococcus, or the corkscrewing ringlets of Lyme disease spirochetes. Regardless of the species and its shape, chances are your mind’s eye conjured up a single cell, or maybe several free-living cells.

The problem with this image, says the microbiologist Julia Schwartzman, is that it doesn’t reflect how most bacteria are likely to live. Often, bacteria use sticky molecules to anchor themselves to a surface, growing in large, stable collectives called biofilms. The plaque on your teeth is a biofilm; so too are infections on catheters, the slimy green of pond scum and the gunk clogging your bathtub drain.

But Schwartzman’s recent work, which she conducted as a postdoctoral fellow in the lab of Otto Cordero at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, shows that even bacteria floating in the open ocean, which lack an anchoring point for forming large conglomerates, exist in multicellular forms.

“We saw these structures that were just incredible,” she said.

As Schwartzman, Cordero and their colleagues showed in their recent paper in Current Biology, these multicellular forms arose because the bacteria developed a life cycle far more complex than is usually seen in unicellular organisms.

Company for Dinner

Schwartzman came to these discoveries about multicellularity in marine bacteria while trying to learn about something more fundamental: how they eat.

In the open ocean, often the only energy source for marine microbes is a gelatinous carbohydrate called alginate. Unlike glucose, fructose and other simple sugars that can readily cross a cell membrane, alginate is made up of long, coiled strands that are often larger than the bacteria dining on them. Schwartzman wanted to know more about how the bacteria feast efficiently, since the digestive enzymes they secrete to break down the alginate could easily be diluted and swept away in the open ocean waters.

That’s why she and Ali Ebrahimi, another postdoc in Cordero’s lab, started measuring the growth of the luminescent marine bacterium Vibrio splendidus in flasks of warm broth laden with alginate. In many microbiology experiments, scientists provide microbes with a smorgasbord of nutrients to encourage the cells to divide as quickly as possible, but Schwartzman and Ebrahimi’s flasks forced the Vibrio bacteria to subsist on relatively small amounts of oversize alginate polymers, just as they do in the sea.

Yet when Schwartzman started collecting data, she thought she had made a rookie mistake. As bacteria multiply, they transform the clear, amber-colored culture broth into a murky stew. By measuring the murkiness, Schwartzman could extrapolate the number of microbes in the flask and construct a growth curve to estimate how rapidly the cells were dividing. Bacteriologists have been estimating growth rates this way for decades. As a postdoc, Schwartzman had lost count of how many times she had done this over the years.

The growth curve for her Vibrio cultures, however, didn’t show the usual smoothly rising line but rather a bumpy squiggle like the track of a roller coaster. No matter how many times she repeated the process, the bacteria didn’t produce the expected cloudiness in the broth.

A Microscopic Snow Globe

To check what was going on, Schwartzman deposited a droplet of the culture solution on a glass microscope slide and peered through the lens at 40 times magnification. What she and Ebrahimi saw were not swarms of individual Vibrio but rather beautiful, layered orbs consisting of hundreds or thousands of bacteria living together.

“It wasn’t just a blob of bacteria,” Schwartzman said. “It’s a spherical thing, and you can see the cells mixing in the middle.”

Further work showed that the hollow spheres were Vibrio’s solution to the complicated challenge of eating at sea. An individual bacterium can produce only so much enzyme; breaking down alginate goes much more quickly when Vibrio can cluster together. It’s a winning strategy, Schwartzman says — up to a point. If there are too many Vibrio, the number of bacteria outstrips the available alginate.

The bacteria resolved the conundrum by developing a more complex life cycle. The bacteria live in three distinct phases. At first, an individual cell divides repeatedly and the daughter cells huddle in growing clumps. In the second phase, the clumped cells rearrange themselves into a hollow sphere. The outermost cells glue themselves together, forming something rather like a microscopic snow globe. The cells inside become more mobile, swimming about as they consume the trapped alginate. In the third phase, the brittle outer layer ruptures, releasing the well-fed inner cells to start the cycle anew.

In effect, Vibrio become a heterogeneous mixture of cells, with the bacteria using different genes to control their behavior in each phase. As the cells interact with their neighbors in the structure, what emerges is “a surprising amount of complexity,” said Schwartzman, who is launching her own lab at the University of Southern California in January. “The bacteria are constantly taking in information from their environment, and sometimes they respond in ways that change the environment.”

This complexity pays off for Vibrio in several ways. By altering their life cycle to include a multicellular stage, the bacteria can digest the alginate efficiently: Their numbers increase, and the hollow shell helps to concentrate the enzymes. Meanwhile, the structure of the community prevents too many cells from being born. The cells in the shell lose the opportunity to reproduce, but their DNA lives on in the next generation anyway, since all the cells in the orb are clones.

How Common Is Multicellularity?

The work is “a beautiful paper,” according to Jordi van Gestel, who studies the evolution of microbial development at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory and wasn’t involved with the research. Van Gestel says that the results bolster the idea that, far from being the exception, microbial group living is the norm.

“It beautifully illustrates the complexity of the life cycle in such simple bacteria,” he said.

Anahit Penesyan, a microbiologist at Macquarie University in Australia, says that Schwartzman and Cordero’s work offers a useful challenge to preconceptions about bacteria. “It’s engraved in our understanding that a microbe is just a single cell,” she said, and as a consequence, researchers often aren’t looking for complex behaviors that might dominate microbial life. “It’s like looking at a plant seed or spore and trying to infer what the whole plant is like.”

The new Vibrio finding adds to a growing list of microbes that can become multicellular for at least part of their life. Last year, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology reported that unicellular yeasts in their laboratory evolved a huge multicellular form in just two years. And in October, researchers in Japan announced their discovery of bacteria that grow into multicellular structures on the walls of caves; when the rocks are immersed by underground streams, the structures eject specialized cells like seeds to colonize other locations.

Schwartzman and van Gestel both believe that a capacity for multicellularity evolved early in life’s history and is shared with bacteria’s ancient cousins, the archaea, which also seem unicellular. They think it’s just a matter of time until researchers find other species with similar properties — and Schwartzman has already begun looking.

James Shapiro, a retired microbiologist from the University of Chicago, has little doubt that she’ll find it.

Beginning in the 1980s, Shapiro and other microbiology luminaries such as Bonnie Bassler at Princeton University showed that the single-celled lifestyle of well-studied bacteria was often an artifact of the artificial flask environments in which they were grown. In a 1998 article in the Annual Review of Microbiology, Shapiro argued that bacteria aren’t unicellular loners. “I came to the conclusion that basically all bacteria are multicellular organisms,” he said.

Over his four-decade career, Shapiro saw his hypothesis transform from nearly heretical to incontrovertible. “At first, I got just bemused attention, but now it’s become conventional wisdom,” he said. “Multicellularity is an inherent property of bacteria.”

Editor’s note: Cordero is co-director of the Simons Collaboration on Principles of Microbial Ecosystems. The research by Schwartzman, Cordero and their colleagues was supported through that collaboration by the Simons Foundation, which also sponsors this editorially independent magazine.

\r\n // Define dataLayer and the gtag function.\r\n window.dataLayer = window.dataLayer || [];\r\n function gtag(){dataLayer.push(arguments);}\r\n\r\n // Default ad_storage to ‘denied’.\r\n gtag(‘consent’, ‘default’, {\r\n ‘ad_storage’: ‘denied’\r\n });\r\n\u003c\/script>\r\n\u003c\!– Google Tag Manager –>\r\n\u003cscript>(function(w,d,s,l,i){w[l]=w[l]||[];w[l].push({‘gtm.start’:\r\nnew Date().getTime(),event:’gtm.js’});var f=d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0],\r\nj=d.createElement(s),dl=l!=’dataLayer’?’&l=”+l:”‘;j.async=true;j.src=\r\n’ End Google Tag Manager –>\r\n\u003c\!– Google Tag Manager (noscript) –>\r\n\u003cnoscript>\u003ciframe src=\” width=\”0\” style=\”display:none;visibility:hidden\”>\u003c/iframe>\u003c/noscript>\r\n\u003c\!– End Google Tag Manager (noscript) –>\r\n\u003cscript>\r\nfunction getCookie(name) {\r\n let value = \”; \” + document.cookie;\r\n var parts = value.split(\”; \” + name + \”=\”);\r\n if (parts.length === 2) return parts.pop().split(\”;\”).shift();\r\n}\r\n\r\nif(getCookie(‘acceptedPolicy’)) {\r\n// google analytics\r\n(function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i[‘GoogleAnalyticsObject’]=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){\r\n(i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o),\r\nm=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m)\r\n})(window,document,’script’,’ ‘UA-8526335-13’, ‘auto’);\r\nga(‘set’, ‘forceSSL’, true);\r\nga(‘require’, ‘displayfeatures’);\r\nga(‘send’,’pageview’);\r\n\r\n// facebook pixel\r\n!function(f,b,e,v,n,t,s)\r\n{if(f.fbq)return;n=f.fbq=function()\r\n{n.callMethod? n.callMethod.apply(n,arguments):n.queue.push(arguments)}\r\n;\r\nif(!f._fbq)f._fbq=n;n.push=n;n.loaded=!0;n.version=’2.0′;\r\nn.queue=[];t=b.createElement(e);t.async=!0;\r\nt.src=v;s=b.getElementsByTagName(e)[0];\r\ns.parentNode.insertBefore(t,s)}(window,document,’script’,\r\n’ ‘190747804793608’); \r\nfbq(‘track’, ‘PageView’);\r\n\r\n// chartbeat\r\nvar _sf_async_config = { uid: 65564, domain: ‘quantamagazine.org’, useCanonical: true };(function() {function loadChartbeat(){ window._sf_endpt = (new Date()).getTime(); var e = document.createElement(‘script’); e.setAttribute(‘language’, ‘javascript’); e.setAttribute(‘type’, ‘text/javascript’); e.setAttribute(‘src’,’//static.chartbeat.com/js/chartbeat.js’); document.body.appendChild(e); };var oldonload = window.onload;window.onload = (typeof window.onload != ‘function’) ?loadChartbeat : function(){ oldonload(); loadChartbeat(); };})();\r\n\r\n// parsley\r\nconst head = document.getElementsByTagName(‘head’)[0];\r\nconst parsleyScript = document.createElement(\”script\”);\r\nparsleyScript.type = \”text/javascript\”;\r\nparsleyScript.src = \”//cdn.parsely.com/keys/quantamagazine.org/p.js\”;\r\nparsleyScript.id = \”parsley-cfg\”;\r\n// end parsley\r\n\r\n//smartlook\r\n window.smartlook||(function(d) {\r\n var o=smartlook=function(){ o.api.push(arguments)},h=d.getElementsByTagName(‘head’)[0];\r\n var c=d.createElement(‘script’);o.api=new Array();c.async=true;c.type=”text/javascript”;\r\n c.charset=”utf-8″;c.src=” })(document);\r\n smartlook(‘init’, ‘3bac9c73fbc7f7f1c527d035a117e2b66f7c3e30’);\r\n\r\n// Google Ads conversions\r\n window.dataLayer = window.dataLayer || [];\r\n function gtag(){dataLayer.push(arguments);}\r\n gtag(‘js’, new Date());\r\n\r\n gtag(‘config’, ‘AW-10788252298’);\r\n\r\n} else {\r\n(function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i[‘GoogleAnalyticsObject’]=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){\r\n(i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o),\r\nm=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m)\r\n})(window,document,’script’,’ ‘UA-8526335-13’, { storage: ‘none’ });\r\nga(‘set’, ‘anonymizeIp’, true);\r\nga(‘set’, ‘forceSSL’, true);\r\nga(‘require’, ‘displayfeatures’);\r\nga(‘send’,’pageview’);\r\n}\r\n\u003c\/script>\r\n”,”google_analytics”:null,”tracking_scripts_no_cookie”:null,”google_analytics_no_cookie”:null,”popular_searches”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.popular_searches.0″,”typename”:”PopularSearch”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.popular_searches.1″,”typename”:”PopularSearch”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.popular_searches.2″,”typename”:”PopularSearch”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.popular_searches.3″,”typename”:”PopularSearch”}],”search_topics”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.0″,”typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.1″,”typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.2″,”typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.3″,”typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.4″,”typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.5″,”typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.6″,”typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.7″,”typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.8″,”typename”:”SearchTopic”}],”search_sections”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_sections.0″,”typename”:”Term”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_sections.1″,”typename”:”Term”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_sections.2″,”typename”:”Term”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_sections.3″,”typename”:”Term”}],”search_authors”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:38171″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:28087″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:29794″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:39302″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:56″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:47249″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:29458″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:73″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:39164″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:59″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:8728″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:11648″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:42689″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:95″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:15493″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:450″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:36490″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:16315″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:2752″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:15492″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:68″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:62″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:13684″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:13691″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:50″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:15142″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:8084″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:742″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:11543″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:57″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:7262″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:70″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:19918″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:13695″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:32676″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:13724″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:26310″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:30207″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:19266″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:13251″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:17000″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:17149″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:5279″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:58″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:32612″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:27534″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:25173″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:64″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:47″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:14784″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:98″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:5830″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:6793″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:75″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:52″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:69″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:77″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:19092″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:20557″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:66″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:46418″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:85″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:37141″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:44758″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:12170″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:32″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:51″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:44787″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:72″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:16475″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:91″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:10351″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:31716″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:1241″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:8463″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:49″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:16815″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:67″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:37462″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:87″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:36139″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:20556″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:90″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:39551″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:27374″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:40″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:45758″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:38413″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:12570″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:38699″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:23451″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:79″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:38″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:60″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:2333″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:3569″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:414″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:20495″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:17147″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:30953″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:32437″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:38705″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:40613″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:7186″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:14093″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:34″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:23″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:74″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:19093″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:1472″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:6476″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:42264″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:10″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:37605″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:43298″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:37428″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:19962″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:24″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:1816″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:84″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:55″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:31″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:24011″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:100″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:2784″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:26114″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:9412″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:820″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:1666″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:20950″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:48″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:80″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:15681″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:24577″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:78″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:23845″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:83″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:35441″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:76″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:15680″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:7239″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:44197″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:65″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:5944″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:61″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:63″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:26311″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:71″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:17148″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:13356″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:17150″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:39768″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:2960″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:14785″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:3″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:54″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:88″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:12964″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:53″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:86″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:3244″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:89″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:15913″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:42263″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:45757″,”typename”:”AuthorList”}],”address_to_editor”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.0″,”typename”:”Editor”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.1″,”typename”:”Editor”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.2″,”typename”:”Editor”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.3″,”typename”:”Editor”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.4″,”typename”:”Editor”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.5″,”typename”:”Editor”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.6″,”typename”:”Editor”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.7″,”typename”:”Editor”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.8″,”typename”:”Editor”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.9″,”typename”:”Editor”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.10″,”typename”:”Editor”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.11″,”typename”:”Editor”}]},”$ROOT_QUERY.options”:{“acf”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf”,”typename”:”ThemeOptions”},”__typename”:”Options”},”$ROOT_QUERY.getPostPageArchive({\”slug\”:\”ocean-bacteria-reveal-an-unexpected-multicellular-form-20221102\”,\”type\”:\”\”}).data.0.acf”:{“custom_page_colors”:””,”page_accent_color”:null,”page_text_color”:null,”page_background_color”:null,”header_type”:”default”,”header_gradient_color”:null,”header_gradient_opacity”:null,”header_solid_colors”:””,”header_solid_primary_color”:null,”header_solid_secondary_color”:null,”header_solid_hover_color”:null,”header_transparent_colors”:null,”header_transparent_primary_color”:null,”header_transparent_secondary_color”:null,”header_transparent_hover_color”:null,”__typename”:”ACFFields”},”$ROOT_QUERY.getPostPageArchive({\”slug\”:\”ocean-bacteria-reveal-an-unexpected-multicellular-form-20221102\”,\”type\”:\”\”}).data.0″:{“acf”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.getPostPageArchive({\”slug\”:\”ocean-bacteria-reveal-an-unexpected-multicellular-form-20221102\”,\”type\”:\”\”}).data.0.acf”,”typename”:”ACFFields”},”__typename”:”Post”},”$ROOT_QUERY.getPostPageArchive({\”slug\”:\”ocean-bacteria-reveal-an-unexpected-multicellular-form-20221102\”,\”type\”:\”\”})”:{“data”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.getPostPageArchive({\”slug\”:\”ocean-bacteria-reveal-an-unexpected-multicellular-form-20221102\”,\”type\”:\”\”}).data.0″,”typename”:”Post”}],”__typename”:”PostPageArchive”},”$ROOT_QUERY.getPageMeta({\”slug\”:\”ocean-bacteria-reveal-an-unexpected-multicellular-form-20221102\”,\”type\”:\”\”})”:{“redirect_path”:null,”meta”:”\u003cmeta name=\”description\” content=\”Marine bacteria normally seen as single cells join together as a “microscopic snow globe” to consume bulky floating carbohydrates.\” />\n\u003cmeta property=\”og:image\” content=\” />\n\u003cmeta property=\”og:image:width\” content=\”1200\” />\n\u003cmeta property=\”og:image:height\” content=\”630\” />\n\u003cmeta property=\”og:image:alt\” content=\”An artificially colored cross section through one of the Vibrio orbs.\” />\n\u003cmeta property=\”og:locale\” content=\”en_US\” />\n\u003cmeta property=\”og:type\” content=\”article\” />\n\u003cmeta property=\”og:title\” content=\”Ocean Bacteria Reveal an Unexpected Multicellular Form | Quanta Magazine\” />\n\u003cmeta property=\”og:description\” content=\”Marine bacteria normally seen as single cells join together as a “microscopic snow globe” to consume bulky floating carbohydrates.\” />\n\u003cmeta property=\”og:url\” content=\” />\n\u003cmeta property=\”og:site_name\” content=\”Quanta Magazine\” />\n\u003cmeta property=\”og:updated_time\” content=\”2022-11-02T14:13+00:00\” />\n\u003cmeta property=\”article:publisher\” content=\” />\n\u003cmeta property=\”fb:app_id\” content=\”533309373681765\” />\n\u003cmeta property=\”article:published_time\” content=\”2022-11-02T14:13+00:00\” />\n\u003cmeta property=\”article:modified_time\” content=\”2022-11-02T14:13+00:00\” />\n\u003cmeta name=\”twitter:card\” content=\”summary_large_image\” />\n\u003cmeta name=\”twitter:site\” content=\”@QuantaMagazine\” />\n\u003cmeta name=\”twitter:title\” content=\”Ocean Bacteria Reveal an Unexpected Multicellular Form | Quanta Magazine\” />\n\u003cmeta name=\”twitter:description\” content=\”Marine bacteria normally seen as single cells join together as a “microscopic snow globe” to consume bulky floating carbohydrates.\” />\n\u003cmeta name=\”twitter:image\” content=\” />\n\u003cmeta name=\”twitter:image:width\” content=\”1200\” />\n\u003cmeta name=\”twitter:image:height\” content=\”630\” />\n\u003cmeta name=\”twitter:image:alt\” content=\”An artificially colored cross section through one of the Vibrio orbs.\” />\n\u003clink rel=\”canonical\” href=\” />\n\u003cscript type=\”application/ld+json\”>{\”@context\”:\”https://schema.org\”,\”@type\”:\”BreadcrumbList\”,\”itemListElement\”:[{\”@type\”:\”ListItem\”,\”position\”:1,\”item\”:{\”@id\”:\”https://www.quantamagazine.org/\”,\”name\”:\”Quanta Magazine | Science and Math News\”}},{\”@type\”:\”ListItem\”,\”position\”:2,\”item\”:{\”@id\”:\” blog\”}},{\”@type\”:\”ListItem\”,\”position\”:3,\”item\”:{\”@id\”:\”,\”name\”:\”Ocean Bacteria Reveal an Unexpected Multicellular Form\”}}]}\u003c\/script>\n”,”__typename”:”PageMeta”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.social_media_links.0″:{“type”:”facebook”,”label”:”Facebook”,”url”:” Joy of Why”,”slug”:”the-joy-of-why”,”description”:”The mathematician and author Steven Strogatz interviews leading researchers about the great scientific and mathematical questions of our time.”,”featured_image”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.channels.0.featured_image”,”typename”:”Image”},”square_image”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.channels.0.square_image”,”typename”:”Image”},”subscribe_itunes_link”:” Science Podcast”,”slug”:”quanta-podcast”,”description”:”Susan Valot narrates in-depth news episodes based on \u003ci>Quanta Magazine\u003c/i>’s articles about mathematics, physics, biology and computer science. “,”featured_image”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.channels.1.featured_image”,”typename”:”Image”},”square_image”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.channels.1.square_image”,”typename”:”Image”},”subscribe_itunes_link”:” of a neuron showing aggregations of tau protein.”,”caption”:””,”url”:” Joy of x”,”slug”:”the-joy-of-x”,”description”:”The acclaimed mathematician and author Steven Strogatz interviews some of the world’s leading scientists about their lives and work.”,”featured_image”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.channels.2.featured_image”,”typename”:”Image”},”square_image”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.channels.2.square_image”,”typename”:”Image”},”subscribe_itunes_link”:” holes”,”label”:”Black Holes”,”__typename”:”PopularSearch”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.popular_searches.3″:{“term”:”evolution”,”label”:”Evolution”,”__typename”:”PopularSearch”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.0″:{“type”:”Tag”,”label”:”Podcasts”,”tag”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.0.tag”,”typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.0.category”,”typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.0.tag”:{“name”:”Quanta Podcast”,”slug”:”quanta-podcast”,”term_id”:”552″,”__typename”:”Term”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.0.category”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.1″:{“type”:”Tag”,”label”:”Columns”,”tag”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.1.tag”,”typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.1.category”,”typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.1.tag”:{“name”:”Quantized Columns”,”slug”:”quantized”,”term_id”:”551″,”__typename”:”Term”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.1.category”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.2″:{“type”:”Series”,”label”:”Series”,”tag”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.2.tag”,”typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.2.category”,”typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.2.tag”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.2.category”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.3″:{“type”:”Category”,”label”:”Interviews”,”tag”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.3.tag”,”typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.3.category”,”typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.3.tag”:{“name”:”Q&A”,”slug”:”qa”,”term_id”:”567″,”__typename”:”Term”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.3.category”:{“name”:”Q&A”,”slug”:”qa”,”term_id”:”176″,”__typename”:”Term”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.4″:{“type”:”Category”,”label”:”Multimedia”,”tag”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.4.tag”,”typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.4.category”,”typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.4.tag”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.4.category”:{“name”:”Multimedia”,”slug”:”multimedia”,”term_id”:”43″,”__typename”:”Term”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.5″:{“type”:”Category”,”label”:”Puzzles”,”tag”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.5.tag”,”typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.5.category”,”typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.5.tag”:{“name”:”puzzles”,”slug”:”puzzles”,”term_id”:”542″,”__typename”:”Term”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.5.category”:{“name”:”Puzzles”,”slug”:”puzzles”,”term_id”:”546″,”__typename”:”Term”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.6″:{“type”:”Category”,”label”:”Blog Posts”,”tag”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.6.tag”,”typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.6.category”,”typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.6.tag”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.6.category”:{“name”:”Abstractions blog”,”slug”:”abstractions”,”term_id”:”619″,”__typename”:”Term”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.7″:{“type”:”news”,”label”:”News Articles”,”tag”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.7.tag”,”typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.7.category”,”typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.7.tag”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.7.category”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.8″:{“type”:”videos”,”label”:”Videos”,”tag”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.8.tag”,”typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.8.category”,”typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.8.tag”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.8.category”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_sections.0″:{“name”:”Mathematics”,”slug”:”mathematics”,”term_id”:”188″,”__typename”:”Term”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_sections.1″:{“name”:”Physics”,”slug”:”physics”,”term_id”:”189″,”__typename”:”Term”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_sections.2″:{“name”:”Biology”,”slug”:”biology”,”term_id”:”191″,”__typename”:”Term”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_sections.3″:{“name”:”Computer Science”,”slug”:”computer-science”,”term_id”:”190″,”__typename”:”Term”},”AuthorList:38171″:{“id”:”38171″,”name”:”Adam Becker”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:28087″:{“id”:”28087″,”name”:”Adam Mann”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:29794″:{“id”:”29794″,”name”:”Alex Kontorovich”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:39302″:{“id”:”39302″,”name”:”Alexander Hellemans”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:56″:{“id”:”56″,”name”:”Alla Katsnelson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:47249″:{“id”:”47249″,”name”:”Allison Parshall”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:29458″:{“id”:”29458″,”name”:”Allison Whitten”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:73″:{“id”:”73″,”name”:”Amanda Gefter”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:39164″:{“id”:”39164″,”name”:”Ana Kova”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:59″:{“id”:”59″,”name”:”Andreas von Bubnoff”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:8728″:{“id”:”8728″,”name”:”Anil Ananthaswamy”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:11648″:{“id”:”11648″,”name”:”Ann Finkbeiner”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:42689″:{“id”:”42689″,”name”:”Annie Melchor”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:95″:{“id”:”95″,”name”:”Ariel Bleicher”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:15493″:{“id”:”15493″,”name”:”Ashley Smart”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:450″:{“id”:”450″,”name”:”Ashley Yeager”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:36490″:{“id”:”36490″,”name”:”Ben Brubaker”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:16315″:{“id”:”16315″,”name”:”Bill Andrews”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:2752″:{“id”:”2752″,”name”:”Bob Henderson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:15492″:{“id”:”15492″,”name”:”Brendan Z. Foster”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:68″:{“id”:”68″,”name”:”Brooke Borel”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:62″:{“id”:”62″,”name”:”Carl Zimmer”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:13684″:{“id”:”13684″,”name”:”Caroline Lee”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:13691″:{“id”:”13691″,”name”:”Caroline Lee”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:50″:{“id”:”50″,”name”:”Carrie Arnold”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:15142″:{“id”:”15142″,”name”:”Chanda Prescod-Weinstein”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:8084″:{“id”:”8084″,”name”:”Charlie Wood”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:742″:{“id”:”742″,”name”:”Christie Wilcox”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:11543″:{“id”:”11543″,”name”:”Claudia Dreifus”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:57″:{“id”:”57″,”name”:”Courtney Humphries”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:7262″:{“id”:”7262″,”name”:”Dalmeet Singh Chawla”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:70″:{“id”:”70″,”name”:”Dan Falk”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:19918″:{“id”:”19918″,”name”:”Dana Najjar”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:13695″:{“id”:”13695″,”name”:”Daniel Garisto”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:32676″:{“id”:”32676″,”name”:”Daniel S. Freed”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:13724″:{“id”:”13724″,”name”:”David H. Freedman”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:26310″:{“id”:”26310″,”name”:”David S. Richeson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:30207″:{“id”:”30207″,”name”:”David Tse”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:19266″:{“id”:”19266″,”name”:”Devin Powell”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:13251″:{“id”:”13251″,”name”:”Diana Kwon”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:17000″:{“id”:”17000″,”name”:”Elena Renken”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:17149″:{“id”:”17149″,”name”:”Elizabeth Landau”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:5279″:{“id”:”5279″,”name”:”Elizabeth Preston”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:58″:{“id”:”58″,”name”:”Elizabeth Svoboda”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:32612″:{“id”:”32612″,”name”:”Ellen Horne”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:27534″:{“id”:”27534″,”name”:”Emily Buder”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:25173″:{“id”:”25173″,”name”:”Emily Levesque”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:64″:{“id”:”64″,”name”:”Emily Singer”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:47″:{“id”:”47″,”name”:”Erica Klarreich”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:14784″:{“id”:”14784″,”name”:”Erika K. Carlson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:98″:{“id”:”98″,”name”:”Esther Landhuis”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:5830″:{“id”:”5830″,”name”:”Eva Silverstein”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:6793″:{“id”:”6793″,”name”:”Evelyn Lamb”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:75″:{“id”:”75″,”name”:”Ferris Jabr”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:52″:{“id”:”52″,”name”:”Frank Wilczek”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:69″:{“id”:”69″,”name”:”Gabriel Popkin”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:77″:{“id”:”77″,”name”:”George Musser”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:19092″:{“id”:”19092″,”name”:”Grant Sanderson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:20557″:{“id”:”20557″,”name”:”Howard Lee”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:66″:{“id”:”66″,”name”:”Ingrid Daubechies”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:46418″:{“id”:”46418″,”name”:”Ingrid Wickelgren”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:85″:{“id”:”85″,”name”:”Ivan Amato”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:37141″:{“id”:”37141″,”name”:”Jake Buehler”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:44758″:{“id”:”44758″,”name”:”James Dinneen”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:12170″:{“id”:”12170″,”name”:”Janna Levin”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:32″:{“id”:”32″,”name”:”Jeanette Kazmierczak”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:51″:{“id”:”51″,”name”:”Jennifer Ouellette”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:44787″:{“id”:”44787″,”name”:”Joanna Thompson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:72″:{“id”:”72″,”name”:”John Pavlus”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:16475″:{“id”:”16475″,”name”:”John Preskill”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:91″:{“id”:”91″,”name”:”John Rennie”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:10351″:{“id”:”10351″,”name”:”Jonathan Lambert”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:31716″:{“id”:”31716″,”name”:”Jonathan O’Callaghan”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:1241″:{“id”:”1241″,”name”:”Jordana Cepelewicz”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:8463″:{“id”:”8463″,”name”:”Joshua Roebke”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:49″:{“id”:”49″,”name”:”Joshua Sokol”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:16815″:{“id”:”16815″,”name”:”jye”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:67″:{“id”:”67″,”name”:”K.C. Cole”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:37462″:{“id”:”37462″,”name”:”Karmela Padavic-Callaghan”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:87″:{“id”:”87″,”name”:”Kat McGowan”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:36139″:{“id”:”36139″,”name”:”Katarina Zimmer”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:20556″:{“id”:”20556″,”name”:”Katherine Harmon Courage”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:90″:{“id”:”90″,”name”:”Katia Moskvitch”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:39551″:{“id”:”39551″,”name”:”Katie McCormick”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:27374″:{“id”:”27374″,”name”:”Kelsey Houston-Edwards”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:40″:{“id”:”40″,”name”:”Kevin Hartnett”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:45758″:{“id”:”45758″,”name”:”Kristina Armitage”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:38413″:{“id”:”38413″,”name”:”Lakshmi Chandrasekaran”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:12570″:{“id”:”12570″,”name”:”Laura Poppick”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:38699″:{“id”:”38699″,”name”:”Leila Sloman”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:23451″:{“id”:”23451″,”name”:”Liam Drew”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:79″:{“id”:”79″,”name”:”Liz Kruesi”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:38″:{“id”:”38″,”name”:”Lucy Reading-Ikkanda”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:60″:{“id”:”60″,”name”:”Maggie McKee”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:2333″:{“id”:”2333″,”name”:”Mallory Locklear”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:3569″:{“id”:”3569″,”name”:”Marcus Woo”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:414″:{“id”:”414″,”name”:”Mark Kim-Mulgrew”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:20495″:{“id”:”20495″,”name”:”Matt Carlstrom”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:17147″:{“id”:”17147″,”name”:”Matthew Hutson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:30953″:{“id”:”30953″,”name”:”Max G. Levy”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:32437″:{“id”:”32437″,”name”:”Max Kozlov”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:38705″:{“id”:”38705″,”name”:”mcho”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:40613″:{“id”:”40613″,”name”:”Melanie Mitchell”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:7186″:{“id”:”7186″,”name”:”Melinda Wenner Moyer”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:14093″:{“id”:”14093″,”name”:”Michael Harris”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:34″:{“id”:”34″,”name”:”Michael Kranz”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:23″:{“id”:”23″,”name”:”Michael Moyer”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:74″:{“id”:”74″,”name”:”Michael Nielsen”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:19093″:{“id”:”19093″,”name”:”Michele Bannister”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:1472″:{“id”:”1472″,”name”:”Moira Chas”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:6476″:{“id”:”6476″,”name”:”Monique Brouillette”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:42264″:{“id”:”42264″,”name”:”Mordechai Rorvig”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:10″:{“id”:”10″,”name”:”Natalie Wolchover”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:37605″:{“id”:”37605″,”name”:”Nick Thieme”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:43298″:{“id”:”43298″,”name”:”Nicole Yunger Halpern”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:37428″:{“id”:”37428″,”name”:”Nima Arkani-Hamed”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:19962″:{“id”:”19962″,”name”:”Nola Taylor Redd”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:24″:{“id”:”24″,”name”:”Olena Shmahalo”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:1816″:{“id”:”1816″,”name”:”Patrick Honner”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:84″:{“id”:”84″,”name”:”Peter Byrne”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:55″:{“id”:”55″,”name”:”Philip Ball”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:31″:{“id”:”31″,”name”:”Pradeep Mutalik”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:24011″:{“id”:”24011″,”name”:”Puja Changoiwala”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:100″:{“id”:”100″,”name”:”Quanta Magazine”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:2784″:{“id”:”2784″,”name”:”R. Douglas Fields”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:26114″:{“id”:”26114″,”name”:”Rachel Crowell”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:9412″:{“id”:”9412″,”name”:”Raleigh McElvery”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:820″:{“id”:”820″,”name”:”Ramin Skibba”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:1666″:{“id”:”1666″,”name”:”Rebecca Boyle”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:20950″:{“id”:”20950″,”name”:”Richard Masland”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:48″:{“id”:”48″,”name”:”Robbert Dijkgraaf”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:80″:{“id”:”80″,”name”:”Roberta Kwok”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:15681″:{“id”:”15681″,”name”:”Robin George Andrews”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:24577″:{“id”:”24577″,”name”:”Rodrigo Pérez Ortega”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:78″:{“id”:”78″,”name”:”Sabine Hossenfelder”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:23845″:{“id”:”23845″,”name”:”Samuel Velasco”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:83″:{“id”:”83″,”name”:”Sarah Lewin”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:35441″:{“id”:”35441″,”name”:”Scott Aaronson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:76″:{“id”:”76″,”name”:”Sean B. Carroll”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:15680″:{“id”:”15680″,”name”:”Sean Carroll”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:7239″:{“id”:”7239″,”name”:”Shannon Hall”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:44197″:{“id”:”44197″,”name”:”Sheon Han”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:65″:{“id”:”65″,”name”:”Siobhan Roberts”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:5944″:{“id”:”5944″,”name”:”Sophia Chen”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:61″:{“id”:”61″,”name”:”Steph Yin”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:63″:{“id”:”63″,”name”:”Stephanie Bucklin”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:26311″:{“id”:”26311″,”name”:”Stephanie DeMarco”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:71″:{“id”:”71″,”name”:”Stephen Ornes”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:17148″:{“id”:”17148″,”name”:”Steve Nadis”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:13356″:{“id”:”13356″,”name”:”Steven Strogatz”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:17150″:{“id”:”17150″,”name”:”Susan D’Agostino”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:39768″:{“id”:”39768″,”name”:”Tamar Lichter Blanks”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:2960″:{“id”:”2960″,”name”:”Tara C. Smith”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:14785″:{“id”:”14785″,”name”:”Thomas Lewton”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:3″:{“id”:”3″,”name”:”Thomas Lin”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:54″:{“id”:”54″,”name”:”Tim Vernimmen”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:88″:{“id”:”88″,”name”:”Tom Siegfried”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:12964″:{“id”:”12964″,”name”:”Vanessa Schipani”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:53″:{“id”:”53″,”name”:”Veronique Greenwood”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:86″:{“id”:”86″,”name”:”Virginia Hughes”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:3244″:{“id”:”3244″,”name”:”Viviane Callier”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:89″:{“id”:”89″,”name”:”Wynne Parry”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:15913″:{“id”:”15913″,”name”:”XiaoZhi Lim”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:42263″:{“id”:”42263″,”name”:”Yasemin Saplakoglu”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:45757″:{“id”:”45757″,”name”:”Zack Savitsky”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.0″:{“name”:”Bill Andrews – Senior CS Editor”,”__typename”:”Editor”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.1″:{“name”:”Ben Brubaker – Staff CS Writer”,”__typename”:”Editor”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.2″:{“name”:”Matt Carlstrom – Senior Engagement Editor”,”__typename”:”Editor”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.3″:{“name”:”Jordana Cepelewicz – Senior Math Writer”,”__typename”:”Editor”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.4″:{“name”:”Konstantin Kakaes – Senior Math Editor”,”__typename”:”Editor”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.5″:{“name”:”Thomas Lin – Editor in Chief”,”__typename”:”Editor”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.6″:{“name”:”Michael Moyer – Deputy Editor, Physics, Math, CS”,”__typename”:”Editor”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.7″:{“name”:”John Rennie – Deputy Editor, Biology, Podcasts”,”__typename”:”Editor”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.8″:{“name”:”Yasemin Saplakoglu – Staff Biology Writer”,”__typename”:”Editor”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.9″:{“name”:”Samuel Velasco – Art Director”,”__typename”:”Editor”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.10″:{“name”:”Natalie Wolchover – Senior Physics Editor”,”__typename”:”Editor”},”$ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.11″:{“name”:”Charlie Wood – Staff Physics Writer”,”__typename”:”Editor”},”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”footer\”}).items.0″:{“title”:”About Quanta”,”url”:” Us”,”url”:” & Conditions”,”url”:” Policy”,”url”:” Foundation”,”url”:”http://www.simonsfoundation.org”,”order”:6,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”footer\”})”:{“items”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”footer\”}).items.0″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”footer\”}).items.1″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”footer\”}).items.2″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”footer\”}).items.3″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”footer\”}).items.4″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”footer\”}).items.5″,”typename”:”MenuItem”}],”__typename”:”Menu”},”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”main-menu\”}).items.0″:{“title”:”Physics”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/physics/”,”order”:1,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”main-menu\”}).items.1″:{“title”:”Mathematics”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/mathematics/”,”order”:2,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”main-menu\”}).items.2″:{“title”:”Biology”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/biology/”,”order”:3,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”main-menu\”}).items.3″:{“title”:”Computer Science”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/computer-science/”,”order”:4,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”main-menu\”}).items.4″:{“title”:”Topics”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/topics”,”order”:5,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”main-menu\”}).items.5″:{“title”:”Archive”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/archive/”,”order”:6,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”main-menu\”})”:{“items”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”main-menu\”}).items.0″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”main-menu\”}).items.1″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”main-menu\”}).items.2″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”main-menu\”}).items.3″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”main-menu\”}).items.4″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”main-menu\”}).items.5″,”typename”:”MenuItem”}],”__typename”:”Menu”},”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”secondary-menu\”}).items.0″:{“title”:”Blog”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/abstractions/”,”order”:1,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”secondary-menu\”}).items.1″:{“title”:”Q&A”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/qa/”,”order”:2,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”secondary-menu\”}).items.2″:{“title”:”Columns”,”url”:”/tag/quantized”,”order”:3,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”secondary-menu\”}).items.3″:{“title”:”Puzzles”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/puzzles/”,”order”:4,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”secondary-menu\”}).items.4″:{“title”:”Podcasts”,”url”:”/podcasts/”,”order”:5,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”secondary-menu\”}).items.5″:{“title”:”Videos”,”url”:”/videos”,”order”:6,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”secondary-menu\”}).items.6″:{“title”:”Multimedia”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/multimedia/”,”order”:7,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”secondary-menu\”}).items.7″:{“title”:”About Quanta”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/about/”,”order”:8,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”secondary-menu\”})”:{“items”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”secondary-menu\”}).items.0″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”secondary-menu\”}).items.1″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”secondary-menu\”}).items.2″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”secondary-menu\”}).items.3″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”secondary-menu\”}).items.4″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”secondary-menu\”}).items.5″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”secondary-menu\”}).items.6″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.menu({\”slug\”:\”secondary-menu\”}).items.7″,”typename”:”MenuItem”}],”__typename”:”Menu”},”$ROOT_QUERY.getPostPageArchive({\”slug\”:\”ocean-bacteria-reveal-an-unexpected-multicellular-form-20221102\”})”:{“type”:”post”,”meta”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$ROOT_QUERY.getPostPageArchive({\”slug\”:\”ocean-bacteria-reveal-an-unexpected-multicellular-form-20221102\”}).meta”,”typename”:”PageData”},”data”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”Post:120304″,”typename”:”Post”}],”__typename”:”PostPageArchive”},”$ROOT_QUERY.getPostPageArchive({\”slug\”:\”ocean-bacteria-reveal-an-unexpected-multicellular-form-20221102\”}).meta”:{“title”:”Ocean Bacteria Reveal an Unexpected Multicellular Form | Quanta Magazine”,”max_num_pages”:0,”found_posts”:0,”extra_term”:””,”author”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”Author:null”,”typename”:”Author”},”tag”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”Term:null”,”typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”Term:null”,”typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”PageData”},”Author:null”:{“id”:null,”name”:null,”link”:null,”description”:null,”url”:null,”public_email”:null,”facebook”:null,”twitter”:null,”instagram”:null,”acf”:null,”__typename”:”Author”},”Term:null”:{“id”:null,”slug”:null,”name”:null,”link”:null,”description”:null,”image”:””,”__typename”:”Term”},”Post:120304″:{“id”:”120304″,”title”:”Ocean Bacteria Reveal an Unexpected Multicellular Form”,”excerpt”:”\u003cp>Marine bacteria normally seen as single cells join together as a “microscopic snow globe” to consume bulky floating carbohydrates.\u003c/p>\n”,”link”:” https://www.quantamagazine.org/?p=120304″,”date”:”2022-11-02T10:13:20″,”featured_media_image”:null,”authors”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Post:120304.authors.0″,”typename”:”Author”}],”tags”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Post:120304.tags.0″,”typename”:”Term”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Post:120304.tags.1″,”typename”:”Term”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Post:120304.tags.2″,”typename”:”Term”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Post:120304.tags.3″,”typename”:”Term”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Post:120304.tags.4″,”typename”:”Term”}],”podcast”:null,”acf”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$Post:120304.acf”,”typename”:”ACFFields”},”__typename”:”Post”,”status”:”publish”,”content”:””,”categories”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”Term:619″,”typename”:”Term”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”Term:191″,”typename”:”Term”}],”attachments”:null,”series_prev”:null,”series_next”:null,”next”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$Post:120304.next”,”typename”:”PostPageArchive”}},”Post:120304.authors.0″:{“name”:”Carrie Arnold”,”link”:” blog”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/tag/abstractions-blog/”},”Post:120304.tags.1″:{“slug”:”bacteria”,”__typename”:”Term”,”name”:”bacteria”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/tag/bacteria/”},”Post:120304.tags.2″:{“slug”:”biology”,”__typename”:”Term”,”name”:”biology”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/tag/biology/”},”Post:120304.tags.3″:{“slug”:”microbiology”,”__typename”:”Term”,”name”:”microbiology”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/tag/microbiology/”},”Post:120304.tags.4″:{“slug”:”multicellularity”,”__typename”:”Term”,”name”:”multicellularity”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/tag/multicellularity/”},”$Post:120304.acf”:{“featured_block_title”:””,”kicker”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$Post:120304.acf.kicker”,”typename”:”Term”},”featured_image_default”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$Post:120304.acf.featured_image_default”,”typename”:”Image”},”featured_image_square”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$Post:120304.acf.featured_image_square”,”typename”:”Image”},”featured_image_full_width”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$Post:120304.acf.featured_image_full_width”,”typename”:”Image”},”featured_image_gif”:false,”featured_video”:”false”,”full_page_interactive”:false,”podcast_publish_date”:””,”__typename”:”ACFFields”,”interactive_type”:null,”iframe_url”:null,”return_cursor”:null,”exclude_blurb”:null,”interactive_html”:null,”interactive_css”:null,”interactive_js”:null,”interactive_blurb”:null,”related_article”:null,”modules”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$Post:120304.acf.modules.0″,”typename”:”ACFImageComponent”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$Post:120304.acf.modules.1″,”typename”:”ACFContent”}],”template”:”article”,”subtitle”:”Marine bacteria normally seen as single cells join together as a “microscopic snow globe” to consume bulky floating carbohydrates.”,”title_layout”:”default”,”title_background_type”:null,”title_background_image”:null,”title_background_video”:null,”title_background_attribution”:null,”title_background_image_gif”:null,”title_overlay_enable”:null,”title_overlay_color”:null,”title_overlay_opacity”:null,”title_text_color”:null,”featured_image_attribution”:”\u003cp data-pm-slice=\”1 1 []\”>Julia Schwartzman, Ali Ebrahimi and Grayson Chadwick\u003c/p>\n”,”featured_overlay_enable”:”false”,”featured_overlay_color”:null,”featured_overlay_opacity”:null,”series”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$Post:120304.acf.series”,”typename”:”Term”},”intro_content”:null,”make_image_full_width”:null,”hide_ad_on_post”:false},”$Post:120304.acf.kicker”:{“name”:”microbiology”,”link”:” artificially colored cross section through one of the Vibrio orbs.”,”caption”:””,”url”:” artificially colored cross section through one of the Vibrio orbs.”,”caption”:””,”url”:” blog”,”slug”:”abstractions”,”link”:” Writer”,”avatar”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$Post:120304.authors.0.acf.avatar”,”typename”:”Image”},”__typename”:”AuthorACF”},”$Post:120304.authors.0.acf.avatar”:{“alt”:””,”caption”:””,”url”:” data-pm-slice=\”1 1 []\”>Julia Schwartzman, Ali Ebrahimi and Grayson Chadwick\u003c/p>\n”,”caption”:”\u003cp>Hundreds of \u003ci>Vibrio \u003c/i>bacteria join to form spherical structures like this one shown in cross section. The artificial color differences, which reflect the amount of nitrogen present, reveal that the orb is a hollow sphere with cells sealed together on the outside and mobile cells inside.\u003c/p>\n”,”mobile_comp_caption”:””,”mobile_comp_attribution”:””,”sets”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$Post:120304.acf.modules.0.sets.0″,”typename”:”ImageSet”}],”__typename”:”ACFImageComponent”},”$Post:120304.acf.modules.0.sets.0″:{“settings”:””,”image”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$Post:120304.acf.modules.0.sets.0.image”,”typename”:”Image”},”mobile_image”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$Post:120304.acf.modules.0.sets.0.mobile_image”,”typename”:”Image”},”mobile_side_margins”:false,”mobile_width_constraint”:””,”mobile_caption”:””,”mobile_attribution”:””,”zoom_image”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$Post:120304.acf.modules.0.sets.0.zoom_image”,”typename”:”Image”},”zoom_caption”:””,”zoom_attribution”:””,”mobile_zoom_image”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$Post:120304.acf.modules.0.sets.0.mobile_zoom_image”,”typename”:”Image”},”mobile_zoom_caption”:””,”mobile_zoom_attribution”:””,”external_link”:””,”__typename”:”ImageSet”},”$Post:120304.acf.modules.0.sets.0.image”:{“alt”:”An artificially colored cross section through one of the Vibrio orbs.”,”caption”:””,”url”:” your eyes and imagine bacteria. Perhaps you’re picturing our intestinal \u003cem>Escherichia coli\u003c/em>, or the shiny golden balls of staphylococcus, or the corkscrewing ringlets of Lyme disease spirochetes. Regardless of the species and its shape, chances are your mind’s eye conjured up a single cell, or maybe several free-living cells.\u003c/p>\n\u003cp>The problem with this image, says the microbiologist \u003ca href=\” Schwartzman\u003c/a>, is that it doesn’t reflect how most bacteria are likely to live. Often, bacteria use sticky molecules to anchor themselves to a surface, growing in \u003ca href=\” stable collectives\u003c/a> called biofilms. The plaque on your teeth is a biofilm; so too are infections on catheters, the slimy green of pond scum and the gunk clogging your bathtub drain.\u003c/p>\n\u003cp>But Schwartzman’s recent work, which she conducted as a postdoctoral fellow in the lab of \u003ca href=\” Cordero\u003c/a> at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, shows that even bacteria floating in the open ocean, which lack an anchoring point for forming large conglomerates, exist in multicellular forms.\u003c/p>\n\u003cp>“We saw these structures that were just incredible,” she said.\u003c/p>\n\u003cp>As Schwartzman, Cordero and their colleagues showed in their \u003ca href=\” paper in \u003cem>Current Biology\u003c/em>\u003c/a>, these multicellular forms arose because the bacteria developed a life cycle far more complex than is usually seen in unicellular organisms.\u003c/p>\n\u003ch2>\u003cstrong>Company for Dinner\u003c/strong>\u003c/h2>\n\u003cp>Schwartzman came to these discoveries about multicellularity in marine bacteria while trying to learn about something more fundamental: how they eat.\u003c/p>\n\u003cdiv id=’component-63627b70c4e54′ class=””>\u003cscript type=\”text/template\”>{\”type\”:\”CategoryDetails\”,\”id\”:\”component-63627b70c4e54\”,\”data\”:{\”type\”:\”category\”,\”id\”:619,\”title\”:\”Abstractions blog\”,\”description\”:\”\u003cem>Abstractions\u003c\\/em> navigates promising ideas in science and mathematics. Journey with us and join the conversation.\”,\”link\”:\”https:\\/\\/www.quantamagazine.org\\/abstractions\\/\”,\”image\”:{\”ID\”:41194,\”id\”:41194,\”title\”:\”Abstractions\”,\”filename\”:\”Abstractions.png\”,\”filesize\”:17245,\”url\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2017\\/04\\/Abstractions.png\”,\”link\”:\”https:\\/\\/www.quantamagazine.org\\/new-algorithm-solves-cake-cutting-problem-20161006\\/abstractions\\/\”,\”alt\”:\”Abstractions logo\”,\”author\”:\”24\”,\”description\”:\”\”,\”caption\”:\”Abstractions\\u200b navigates promising ideas in science and mathematics. Journey with us and join the conversation.\”,\”name\”:\”abstractions\”,\”status\”:\”inherit\”,\”uploaded_to\”:30685,\”date\”:\”2017-04-19 21:19:01\”,\”modified\”:\”2017-04-28 15:40:02\”,\”menu_order\”:0,\”mime_type\”:\”image\\/png\”,\”type\”:\”image\”,\”subtype\”:\”png\”,\”icon\”:\”https:\\/\\/api.quantamagazine.org\\/wp-includes\\/images\\/media\\/default.png\”,\”width\”:600,\”height\”:520,\”sizes\”:{\”thumbnail\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2017\\/04\\/Abstractions-520×451.png\”,\”thumbnail-width\”:520,\”thumbnail-height\”:451,\”medium\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2017\\/04\\/Abstractions.png\”,\”medium-width\”:600,\”medium-height\”:520,\”medium_large\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2017\\/04\\/Abstractions.png\”,\”medium_large-width\”:600,\”medium_large-height\”:520,\”large\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2017\\/04\\/Abstractions.png\”,\”large-width\”:600,\”large-height\”:520,\”1536×1536\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2017\\/04\\/Abstractions.png\”,\”1536×1536-width\”:600,\”1536×1536-height\”:520,\”2048×2048\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2017\\/04\\/Abstractions.png\”,\”2048×2048-width\”:600,\”2048×2048-height\”:520,\”square_small\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2017\\/04\\/Abstractions-160×160.png\”,\”square_small-width\”:160,\”square_small-height\”:160,\”square_large\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2017\\/04\\/Abstractions-520×520.png\”,\”square_large-width\”:520,\”square_large-height\”:520}}}}\u003c\/script>\u003c/div>\n\u003cp>In the open ocean, often the only energy source for marine microbes is a gelatinous carbohydrate called alginate. Unlike glucose, fructose and other simple sugars that can readily cross a cell membrane, alginate is made up of long, coiled strands that are often larger than the bacteria dining on them. Schwartzman wanted to know more about how the bacteria feast efficiently, since the digestive enzymes they secrete to break down the alginate could easily be diluted and swept away in the open ocean waters.\u003c/p>\n\u003cp>That’s why she and Ali Ebrahimi, another postdoc in Cordero’s lab, started measuring the growth of the luminescent marine bacterium \u003cem>Vibrio splendidus \u003c/em>in flasks of warm broth laden with alginate. In many microbiology experiments, scientists provide microbes with a smorgasbord of nutrients to encourage the cells to divide as quickly as possible, but Schwartzman and Ebrahimi’s flasks forced the \u003cem>Vibrio\u003c/em> bacteria to subsist on relatively small amounts of oversize alginate polymers, just as they do in the sea.\u003c/p>\n\u003cp>Yet when Schwartzman started collecting data, she thought she had made a rookie mistake. As bacteria multiply, they transform the clear, amber-colored culture broth into a murky stew. By measuring the murkiness, Schwartzman could extrapolate the number of microbes in the flask and construct a growth curve to estimate how rapidly the cells were dividing. Bacteriologists have been estimating growth rates this way for decades. As a postdoc, Schwartzman had lost count of how many times she had done this over the years.\u003c/p>\n\u003cp>The growth curve for her \u003cem>Vibrio\u003c/em> cultures, however, didn’t show the usual smoothly rising line but rather a bumpy squiggle like the track of a roller coaster. No matter how many times she repeated the process, the bacteria didn’t produce the expected cloudiness in the broth.\u003c/p>\n\u003ch2>\u003cstrong>A Microscopic Snow Globe\u003c/strong>\u003c/h2>\n\u003cp>To check what was going on, Schwartzman deposited a droplet of the culture solution on a glass microscope slide and peered through the lens at 40 times magnification. What she and Ebrahimi saw were not swarms of individual \u003cem>Vibrio\u003c/em> but rather beautiful, layered orbs consisting of hundreds or thousands of bacteria living together.\u003c/p>\n\u003cp>“It wasn’t just a blob of bacteria,” Schwartzman said. “It’s a spherical thing, and you can see the cells mixing in the middle.”\u003c/p>\n\u003cdiv id=’component-63627b70cb48a’ class=””>\u003cscript type=\”text/template\”>{\”type\”:\”Article\”,\”id\”:\”component-63627b70cb48a\”,\”data\”:{\”post\”:{\”id\”:52785,\”title\”:\”Seeing the Beautiful Intelligence of Microbes\”,\”link\”:\”https:\\/\\/www.quantamagazine.org\\/the-beautiful-intelligence-of-bacteria-and-other-microbes-20171113\\/\”,\”date\”:\”November 13, 2017\”,\”featured_media_image\”:{\”url\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2017\\/11\\/Scott-Chimileski_Pseudomonas_520x292.jpg\”,\”width\”:520,\”height\”:292,\”sizes\”:{\”thumbnail\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2017\\/11\\/Scott-Chimileski_Pseudomonas_520x292-520×292.jpg\”,\”medium\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2017\\/11\\/Scott-Chimileski_Pseudomonas_520x292.jpg\”,\”medium_large\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2017\\/11\\/Scott-Chimileski_Pseudomonas_520x292.jpg\”,\”large\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2017\\/11\\/Scott-Chimileski_Pseudomonas_520x292.jpg\”,\”square_small\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2017\\/11\\/Scott-Chimileski_Pseudomonas_520x292-160×160.jpg\”,\”square_large\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2017\\/11\\/Scott-Chimileski_Pseudomonas_520x292-520×292.jpg\”}},\”acf\”:{\”featured_block_title\”:\”\”,\”featured_image_default\”:{\”ID\”:52944,\”id\”:52944,\”title\”:\”Scott-Chimileski_Pseudomonas_520x292\”,\”filename\”:\”Scott-Chimileski_Pseudomonas_520x292.jpg\”,\”filesize\”:71800,\”url\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2017\\/11\\/Scott-Chimileski_Pseudomonas_520x292.jpg\”,\”link\”:\”https:\\/\\/www.quantamagazine.org\\/the-beautiful-intelligence-of-bacteria-and-other-microbes-20171113\\/scott-chimileski_pseudomonas_520x292\\/\”,\”alt\”:\”Red slime mold\”,\”author\”:\”38\”,\”description\”:\”\”,\”caption\”:\”\”,\”name\”:\”scott-chimileski_pseudomonas_520x292\”,\”status\”:\”inherit\”,\”uploaded_to\”:52785,\”date\”:\”2017-11-09 21:01:10\”,\”modified\”:\”2017-11-20 22:08:01\”,\”menu_order\”:0,\”mime_type\”:\”image\\/jpeg\”,\”type\”:\”image\”,\”subtype\”:\”jpeg\”,\”icon\”:\”https:\\/\\/api.quantamagazine.org\\/wp-includes\\/images\\/media\\/default.png\”,\”width\”:520,\”height\”:292,\”sizes\”:{\”thumbnail\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2017\\/11\\/Scott-Chimileski_Pseudomonas_520x292-520×292.jpg\”,\”medium\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2017\\/11\\/Scott-Chimileski_Pseudomonas_520x292.jpg\”,\”medium_large\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2017\\/11\\/Scott-Chimileski_Pseudomonas_520x292.jpg\”,\”large\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2017\\/11\\/Scott-Chimileski_Pseudomonas_520x292.jpg\”,\”square_small\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2017\\/11\\/Scott-Chimileski_Pseudomonas_520x292-160×160.jpg\”,\”square_large\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2017\\/11\\/Scott-Chimileski_Pseudomonas_520x292-520×292.jpg\”}},\”kicker\”:{\”name\”:\”Multimedia\”,\”link\”:\”https:\\/\\/www.quantamagazine.org\\/multimedia\\/\”}},\”authors\”:[]}}}\u003c\/script>\u003c/div>\n\u003cp>Further work showed that the hollow spheres were \u003cem>Vibrio\u003c/em>’s solution to the complicated challenge of eating at sea. An individual bacterium can produce only so much enzyme; breaking down alginate goes much more quickly when \u003cem>Vibrio\u003c/em> can cluster together. It’s a winning strategy, Schwartzman says — up to a point. If there are too many \u003cem>Vibrio\u003c/em>, the number of bacteria outstrips the available alginate.\u003c/p>\n\u003cp>The bacteria resolved the conundrum by developing a more complex life cycle. The bacteria live in three distinct phases. At first, an individual cell divides repeatedly and the daughter cells huddle in growing clumps. In the second phase, the clumped cells rearrange themselves into a hollow sphere. The outermost cells glue themselves together, forming something rather like a microscopic snow globe. The cells inside become more mobile, swimming about as they consume the trapped alginate. In the third phase, the brittle outer layer ruptures, releasing the well-fed inner cells to start the cycle anew.\u003c/p>\n\u003cp>In effect, \u003cem>Vibrio\u003c/em> become a heterogeneous mixture of cells, with the bacteria using different genes to control their behavior in each phase. As the cells interact with their neighbors in the structure, what emerges is “a surprising amount of complexity,” said Schwartzman, who is launching her own lab at the University of Southern California in January. “The bacteria are constantly taking in information from their environment, and sometimes they respond in ways that change the environment.”\u003c/p>\n\u003cp>This complexity pays off for \u003cem>Vibrio\u003c/em> in several ways. By altering their life cycle to include a multicellular stage, the bacteria can digest the alginate efficiently: Their numbers increase, and the hollow shell helps to concentrate the enzymes. Meanwhile, the structure of the community prevents too many cells from being born. The cells in the shell lose the opportunity to reproduce, but their DNA lives on in the next generation anyway, since all the cells in the orb are clones.\u003c/p>\n\u003ch2>\u003cstrong>How Common Is Multicellularity?\u003c/strong>\u003c/h2>\n\u003cp>The work is “a beautiful paper,” according to \u003ca href=\” van Gestel\u003c/a>, who studies the evolution of microbial development at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory and wasn’t involved with the research. Van Gestel says that the results bolster the idea that, far from being the exception, microbial group living is the norm.\u003c/p>\n\u003cp>“It beautifully illustrates the complexity of the life cycle in such simple bacteria,” he said.\u003c/p>\n\u003cdiv id=’component-63627b70ce818′ class=””>\u003cscript type=\”text/template\”>{\”type\”:\”Image\”,\”id\”:\”component-63627b70ce818\”,\”data\”:{\”id\”:120319,\”src\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2022\\/11\\/Biofilm-Science-Source.webp\”,\”alt\”:\”Bacteria growing as a biofilm.\”,\”class\”:\”\”,\”width\”:1600,\”height\”:936,\”mobileSrc\”:false,\”zoomSrc\”:false,\”mobileZoomSrc\”:false,\”align\”:\”align=\\\”inline\\\”\”,\”wrapper_width\”:\”\”,\”caption\”:\”\u003cp>Bacteria growing on surfaces often congregate into complex structures called biofilms. Typically, the solid surfaces help the cells to organize themselves.\u003c\\/p>\\n\”,\”attribution\”:\”\u003cp>Science Source\u003c\\/p>\\n\”,\”variant\”:\”shortcode\”,\”size\”:\”wide\”,\”disableZoom\”:false,\”disableMobileZoom\”:false,\”srcImage\”:{\”ID\”:120319,\”id\”:120319,\”title\”:\”Biofilm-Science Source\”,\”filename\”:\”Biofilm-Science-Source.webp\”,\”filesize\”:218366,\”url\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2022\\/11\\/Biofilm-Science-Source.webp\”,\”link\”:\”https:\\/\\/www.quantamagazine.org\\/ocean-bacteria-reveal-an-unexpected-multicellular-form-20221102\\/biofilm-science-source\\/\”,\”alt\”:\”Bacteria growing as a biofilm.\”,\”author\”:\”42689\”,\”description\”:\”\”,\”caption\”:\”\”,\”name\”:\”biofilm-science-source\”,\”status\”:\”inherit\”,\”uploaded_to\”:120304,\”date\”:\”2022-11-02 13:55:34\”,\”modified\”:\”2022-11-02 14:07:46\”,\”menu_order\”:0,\”mime_type\”:\”image\\/webp\”,\”type\”:\”image\”,\”subtype\”:\”webp\”,\”icon\”:\”https:\\/\\/api.quantamagazine.org\\/wp-includes\\/images\\/media\\/default.png\”,\”width\”:1600,\”height\”:936,\”sizes\”:{\”thumbnail\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2022\\/11\\/Biofilm-Science-Source-520×304.webp\”,\”thumbnail-width\”:520,\”thumbnail-height\”:304,\”medium\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2022\\/11\\/Biofilm-Science-Source.webp\”,\”medium-width\”:1600,\”medium-height\”:936,\”medium_large\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2022\\/11\\/Biofilm-Science-Source-768×449.webp\”,\”medium_large-width\”:768,\”medium_large-height\”:449,\”large\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2022\\/11\\/Biofilm-Science-Source.webp\”,\”large-width\”:1600,\”large-height\”:936,\”1536×1536\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2022\\/11\\/Biofilm-Science-Source-1536×899.webp\”,\”1536×1536-width\”:1536,\”1536×1536-height\”:899,\”2048×2048\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2022\\/11\\/Biofilm-Science-Source.webp\”,\”2048×2048-width\”:1600,\”2048×2048-height\”:936,\”square_small\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2022\\/11\\/Biofilm-Science-Source-160×160.webp\”,\”square_small-width\”:160,\”square_small-height\”:160,\”square_large\”:\”https:\\/\\/d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net\\/uploads\\/2022\\/11\\/Biofilm-Science-Source-520×520.webp\”,\”square_large-width\”:520,\”square_large-height\”:520}},\”largeForPrint\”:true,\”externalLink\”:\”\”,\”original_resolution\”:false}}\u003c\/script>\u003c/div>\n\u003cp>\u003ca href=\” Penesyan\u003c/a>, a microbiologist at Macquarie University in Australia, says that Schwartzman and Cordero’s work offers a useful challenge to preconceptions about bacteria. “It’s engraved in our understanding that a microbe is just a single cell,” she said, and as a consequence, researchers often aren’t looking for complex behaviors that might dominate microbial life. “It’s like looking at a plant seed or spore and trying to infer what the whole plant is like.”\u003c/p>\n\u003cp>The new \u003cem>Vibrio\u003c/em> finding adds to a growing list of microbes that can become multicellular for at least part of their life. Last year, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology reported that unicellular yeasts in their laboratory evolved a \u003ca href=\” multicellular form\u003c/a> in just two years. And in October, researchers in Japan \u003ca href=\” their discovery\u003c/a> of bacteria that grow into multicellular structures on the walls of caves; when the rocks are immersed by underground streams, the structures eject specialized cells like seeds to colonize other locations.\u003c/p>\n\u003cp>Schwartzman and van Gestel both believe that a capacity for multicellularity evolved early in life’s history and is shared with bacteria’s ancient cousins, the archaea, which also seem unicellular. They think it’s just a matter of time until researchers find other species with similar properties — and Schwartzman has already begun looking.\u003c/p>\n\u003cp>\u003ca href=\” Shapiro\u003c/a>, a retired microbiologist from the University of Chicago, has little doubt that she’ll find it.\u003c/p>\n\u003cdiv id=’component-63627b70ced65′ class=”related-list”>\u003cscript type=\”text/template\”>{\”type\”:\”LinkList\”,\”id\”:\”component-63627b70ced65\”,\”data\”:{\”title\”:\”Related:\”,\”class\”:\”related-list\”,\”links\”:[{\”type\”:\”internal\”,\”link\”:\”https:\\/\\/www.quantamagazine.org\\/the-beautiful-intelligence-of-bacteria-and-other-microbes-20171113\\/\”,\”title\”:\”Seeing the Beautiful Intelligence of Microbes\”},{\”type\”:\”internal\”,\”link\”:\”https:\\/\\/www.quantamagazine.org\\/single-cells-evolve-large-multicellular-forms-in-just-two-years-20210922\\/\”,\”title\”:\”Single Cells Evolve Large Multicellular Forms in Just Two Years\”},{\”type\”:\”internal\”,\”link\”:\”https:\\/\\/www.quantamagazine.org\\/bonnie-bassler-on-talkative-bacteria-and-eavesdropping-viruses-20210308\\/\”,\”title\”:\”Bonnie Bassler on Talkative Bacteria and Eavesdropping Viruses\”}]}}\u003c\/script>\u003c/div>\n\u003cp>Beginning in the 1980s, Shapiro and other microbiology luminaries such as \u003ca href=\” Bassler\u003c/a> at Princeton University showed that the single-celled lifestyle of well-studied bacteria was often an artifact of the artificial flask environments in which they were grown. In \u003ca href=\” 1998 article\u003c/a> in the \u003cem>Annual Review of Microbiology\u003c/em>, Shapiro argued that bacteria aren’t unicellular loners. “I came to the conclusion that basically all bacteria are multicellular organisms,” he said.\u003c/p>\n\u003cp>Over his four-decade career, Shapiro saw his hypothesis transform from nearly heretical to incontrovertible. “At first, I got just bemused attention, but now it’s become conventional wisdom,” he said. “Multicellularity is an inherent property of bacteria.”\u003c/p>\n\u003cp>\u003cem>Editor’s note: Cordero is co-director of the Simons Collaboration on Principles of Microbial Ecosystems. The research by Schwartzman, Cordero and their colleagues was supported through that collaboration by the Simons Foundation, which also sponsors this editorially independent magazine.\u003c/em>\u003c/p>\n”,”fadein”:false,”__typename”:”ACFContent”},”$Post:120304.acf.series”:{“name”:null,”link”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”$Post:120304.next.data.0″:{“title”:”A Mathematician Who Fled to Freedom but Still Stares Down Doubts”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/in-math-and-life-svetlana-jitomirskaya-stares-down-complexity-20221101/”,”categories”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$Post:120304.next.data.0.categories.0″,”typename”:”Term”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$Post:120304.next.data.0.categories.1″,”typename”:”Term”}],”featured_media_image”:null,”acf”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$Post:120304.next.data.0.acf”,”typename”:”ACFFields”},”__typename”:”Post”},”$Post:120304.next.data.0.categories.0″:{“slug”:”mathematics”,”__typename”:”Term”},”$Post:120304.next.data.0.categories.1″:{“slug”:”qa”,”__typename”:”Term”},”$Post:120304.next.data.0.acf”:{“template”:”article”,”featured_block_title”:”A Mathematician Who Fled to Freedom but Still Faces Doubts”,”featured_image_gif”:false,”featured_image_default”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$Post:120304.next.data.0.acf.featured_image_default”,”typename”:”Image”},”featured_image_full_width”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$Post:120304.next.data.0.acf.featured_image_full_width”,”typename”:”Image”},”__typename”:”ACFFields”},”$Post:120304.next.data.0.acf.featured_image_default”:{“alt”:”Svetlana Jitomirskaya in a blue shirt with her hands out.”,”caption”:””,”url”:” Jitomirskaya in a blue shirt with her hands out.”,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/11/SvetlanaJitomirskaya-2880x1220_HP-scaled.webp”,”width”:2560,”height”:1084,”sizes”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$Post:120304.next.data.0.acf.featured_image_full_width.sizes”,”typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”$Post:120304.next.data.0.acf.featured_image_full_width.sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/11/SvetlanaJitomirskaya-2880x1220_HP-520×220.webp”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/11/SvetlanaJitomirskaya-2880x1220_HP-160×160.webp”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/11/SvetlanaJitomirskaya-2880x1220_HP-520×520.webp”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/11/SvetlanaJitomirskaya-2880x1220_HP-1720×729.webp”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/11/SvetlanaJitomirskaya-2880x1220_HP-768×325.webp”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/11/SvetlanaJitomirskaya-2880x1220_HP-scaled.webp”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”$Post:120304.next”:{“data”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$Post:120304.next.data.0″,”typename”:”Post”}],”__typename”:”PostPageArchive”}}\n”,”settings”:{“socialLinks”:[{“type”:”facebook”,”label”:”Facebook”,”url”:”https://www.facebook.com/QuantaNews”,”__typename”:”SocialMediaLink”},{“type”:”twitter”,”label”:”Twitter”,”url”:”https://twitter.com/QuantaMagazine”,”__typename”:”SocialMediaLink”},{“type”:”youtube”,”label”:”YouTube”,”url”:”https://www.youtube.com/c/QuantaScienceChannel”,”__typename”:”SocialMediaLink”},{“type”:”instagram”,”label”:”Instagram”,”url”:”https://instagram.com/quantamag”,”__typename”:”SocialMediaLink”},{“type”:”rss”,”label”:”RSS”,”url”:”https://api.quantamagazine.org/feed/”,”__typename”:”SocialMediaLink”}],”newsletterAction”:”https://quantamagazine.us1.list-manage.com/subscribe/post?u=0d6ddf7dc1a0b7297c8e06618&id=f0cb61321c”,”newsletterUrl”:”http://us1.campaign-archive2.com/home/?u=0d6ddf7dc1a0b7297c8e06618&id=f0cb61321c”,”sfNotice”:”An editorially independent publication supported by the Simons Foundation.”,”commentsHeader”:”

Quanta Magazine moderates comments to facilitate an informed, substantive, civil conversation. Abusive, profane, self-promotional, misleading, incoherent or off-topic comments will be rejected. Moderators are staffed during regular business hours (New York time) and can only accept comments written in English. 

\n”,”channels”:[{“title”:”The Joy of Why”,”slug”:”the-joy-of-why”,”description”:”The mathematician and author Steven Strogatz interviews leading researchers about the great scientific and mathematical questions of our time.”,”featured_image”:{“alt”:””,”caption”:””,”url”:” Science Podcast”,”slug”:”quanta-podcast”,”description”:”Susan Valot narrates in-depth news episodes based on Quanta Magazine‘s articles about mathematics, physics, biology and computer science. “,”featured_image”:{“alt”:”Micrograph of a neuron showing aggregations of tau protein.”,”caption”:””,”url”:” Joy of x”,”slug”:”the-joy-of-x”,”description”:”The acclaimed mathematician and author Steven Strogatz interviews some of the world’s leading scientists about their lives and work.”,”featured_image”:{“alt”:””,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1.jpg”,”width”:1920,”height”:1080,”sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1-520×293.jpg”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1-160×160.jpg”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1-520×520.jpg”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1-1720×968.jpg”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1-768×432.jpg”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1.jpg”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”square_image”:{“alt”:””,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600.jpg”,”width”:600,”height”:600,”sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600-520×520.jpg”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600-160×160.jpg”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600-520×520.jpg”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600.jpg”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600.jpg”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600.jpg”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”subscribe_itunes_link”:”https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/the-joy-of-x/id1495067186″,”subscribe_spotify_link”:”https://open.spotify.com/show/5HcCtKPH5gnOjRiMtTdC07?si=lFzCzat9QfuPU3hWuYibxQ”,”subscribe_android_link”:”https://podcasts.google.com/feed/aHR0cHM6Ly9hcGkucXVhbnRhbWFnYXppbmUub3JnL2ZlZWQvdGhlLWpveS1vZi14Lw”,”subscribe_stitcher_link”:”https://www.stitcher.com/podcast/the-joy-of-x”,”__typename”:”Channel”}],”editors”:[{“name”:”Bill Andrews – Senior CS Editor”,”__typename”:”Editor”},{“name”:”Ben Brubaker – Staff CS Writer”,”__typename”:”Editor”},{“name”:”Matt Carlstrom – Senior Engagement Editor”,”__typename”:”Editor”},{“name”:”Jordana Cepelewicz – Senior Math Writer”,”__typename”:”Editor”},{“name”:”Konstantin Kakaes – Senior Math Editor”,”__typename”:”Editor”},{“name”:”Thomas Lin – Editor in Chief”,”__typename”:”Editor”},{“name”:”Michael Moyer – Deputy Editor, Physics, Math, CS”,”__typename”:”Editor”},{“name”:”John Rennie – Deputy Editor, Biology, Podcasts”,”__typename”:”Editor”},{“name”:”Yasemin Saplakoglu – Staff Biology Writer”,”__typename”:”Editor”},{“name”:”Samuel Velasco – Art Director”,”__typename”:”Editor”},{“name”:”Natalie Wolchover – Senior Physics Editor”,”__typename”:”Editor”},{“name”:”Charlie Wood – Staff Physics Writer”,”__typename”:”Editor”}],”popularSearches”:[{“term”:”math”,”label”:”Mathematics”,”__typename”:”PopularSearch”},{“term”:”physics”,”label”:”Physics”,”__typename”:”PopularSearch”},{“term”:”black holes”,”label”:”Black Holes”,”__typename”:”PopularSearch”},{“term”:”evolution”,”label”:”Evolution”,”__typename”:”PopularSearch”}],”searchTopics”:[{“type”:”Tag”,”label”:”Podcasts”,”tag”:{“name”:”Quanta Podcast”,”slug”:”quanta-podcast”,”term_id”:”552″,”__typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”Tag”,”label”:”Columns”,”tag”:{“name”:”Quantized Columns”,”slug”:”quantized”,”term_id”:”551″,”__typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”Series”,”label”:”Series”,”tag”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”Category”,”label”:”Interviews”,”tag”:{“name”:”Q&A”,”slug”:”qa”,”term_id”:”567″,”__typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“name”:”Q&A”,”slug”:”qa”,”term_id”:”176″,”__typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”Category”,”label”:”Multimedia”,”tag”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“name”:”Multimedia”,”slug”:”multimedia”,”term_id”:”43″,”__typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”Category”,”label”:”Puzzles”,”tag”:{“name”:”puzzles”,”slug”:”puzzles”,”term_id”:”542″,”__typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“name”:”Puzzles”,”slug”:”puzzles”,”term_id”:”546″,”__typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”Category”,”label”:”Blog Posts”,”tag”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“name”:”Abstractions blog”,”slug”:”abstractions”,”term_id”:”619″,”__typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”news”,”label”:”News Articles”,”tag”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”videos”,”label”:”Videos”,”tag”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”}],”searchSections”:[{“name”:”Mathematics”,”slug”:”mathematics”,”term_id”:”188″,”__typename”:”Term”},{“name”:”Physics”,”slug”:”physics”,”term_id”:”189″,”__typename”:”Term”},{“name”:”Biology”,”slug”:”biology”,”term_id”:”191″,”__typename”:”Term”},{“name”:”Computer Science”,”slug”:”computer-science”,”term_id”:”190″,”__typename”:”Term”}],”searchAuthors”:[{“id”:”38171″,”name”:”Adam Becker”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”28087″,”name”:”Adam Mann”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”29794″,”name”:”Alex Kontorovich”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”39302″,”name”:”Alexander Hellemans”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”56″,”name”:”Alla Katsnelson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”47249″,”name”:”Allison Parshall”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”29458″,”name”:”Allison Whitten”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”73″,”name”:”Amanda Gefter”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”39164″,”name”:”Ana Kova”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”59″,”name”:”Andreas von Bubnoff”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”8728″,”name”:”Anil Ananthaswamy”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”11648″,”name”:”Ann Finkbeiner”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”42689″,”name”:”Annie Melchor”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”95″,”name”:”Ariel Bleicher”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”15493″,”name”:”Ashley Smart”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”450″,”name”:”Ashley Yeager”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”36490″,”name”:”Ben Brubaker”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”16315″,”name”:”Bill Andrews”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”2752″,”name”:”Bob Henderson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”15492″,”name”:”Brendan Z. Foster”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”68″,”name”:”Brooke Borel”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”62″,”name”:”Carl Zimmer”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”13684″,”name”:”Caroline Lee”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”13691″,”name”:”Caroline Lee”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”50″,”name”:”Carrie Arnold”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”15142″,”name”:”Chanda Prescod-Weinstein”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”8084″,”name”:”Charlie Wood”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”742″,”name”:”Christie Wilcox”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”11543″,”name”:”Claudia Dreifus”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”57″,”name”:”Courtney Humphries”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”7262″,”name”:”Dalmeet Singh Chawla”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”70″,”name”:”Dan Falk”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”19918″,”name”:”Dana Najjar”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”13695″,”name”:”Daniel Garisto”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”32676″,”name”:”Daniel S. Freed”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”13724″,”name”:”David H. Freedman”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”26310″,”name”:”David S. Richeson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”30207″,”name”:”David Tse”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”19266″,”name”:”Devin Powell”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”13251″,”name”:”Diana Kwon”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”17000″,”name”:”Elena Renken”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”17149″,”name”:”Elizabeth Landau”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”5279″,”name”:”Elizabeth Preston”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”58″,”name”:”Elizabeth Svoboda”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”32612″,”name”:”Ellen Horne”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”27534″,”name”:”Emily Buder”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”25173″,”name”:”Emily Levesque”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”64″,”name”:”Emily Singer”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”47″,”name”:”Erica Klarreich”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”14784″,”name”:”Erika K. Carlson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”98″,”name”:”Esther Landhuis”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”5830″,”name”:”Eva Silverstein”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”6793″,”name”:”Evelyn Lamb”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”75″,”name”:”Ferris Jabr”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”52″,”name”:”Frank Wilczek”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”69″,”name”:”Gabriel Popkin”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”77″,”name”:”George Musser”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”19092″,”name”:”Grant Sanderson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”20557″,”name”:”Howard Lee”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”66″,”name”:”Ingrid Daubechies”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”46418″,”name”:”Ingrid Wickelgren”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”85″,”name”:”Ivan Amato”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”37141″,”name”:”Jake Buehler”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”44758″,”name”:”James Dinneen”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”12170″,”name”:”Janna Levin”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”32″,”name”:”Jeanette Kazmierczak”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”51″,”name”:”Jennifer Ouellette”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”44787″,”name”:”Joanna Thompson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”72″,”name”:”John Pavlus”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”16475″,”name”:”John Preskill”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”91″,”name”:”John Rennie”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”10351″,”name”:”Jonathan Lambert”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”31716″,”name”:”Jonathan O’Callaghan”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”1241″,”name”:”Jordana Cepelewicz”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”8463″,”name”:”Joshua Roebke”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”49″,”name”:”Joshua Sokol”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”16815″,”name”:”jye”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”67″,”name”:”K.C. Cole”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”37462″,”name”:”Karmela Padavic-Callaghan”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”87″,”name”:”Kat McGowan”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”36139″,”name”:”Katarina Zimmer”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”20556″,”name”:”Katherine Harmon Courage”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”90″,”name”:”Katia Moskvitch”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”39551″,”name”:”Katie McCormick”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”27374″,”name”:”Kelsey Houston-Edwards”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”40″,”name”:”Kevin Hartnett”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”45758″,”name”:”Kristina Armitage”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”38413″,”name”:”Lakshmi Chandrasekaran”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”12570″,”name”:”Laura Poppick”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”38699″,”name”:”Leila Sloman”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”23451″,”name”:”Liam Drew”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”79″,”name”:”Liz Kruesi”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”38″,”name”:”Lucy Reading-Ikkanda”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”60″,”name”:”Maggie McKee”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”2333″,”name”:”Mallory Locklear”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”3569″,”name”:”Marcus Woo”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”414″,”name”:”Mark Kim-Mulgrew”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”20495″,”name”:”Matt Carlstrom”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”17147″,”name”:”Matthew Hutson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”30953″,”name”:”Max G. Levy”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”32437″,”name”:”Max Kozlov”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”38705″,”name”:”mcho”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”40613″,”name”:”Melanie Mitchell”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”7186″,”name”:”Melinda Wenner Moyer”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”14093″,”name”:”Michael Harris”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”34″,”name”:”Michael Kranz”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”23″,”name”:”Michael Moyer”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”74″,”name”:”Michael Nielsen”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”19093″,”name”:”Michele Bannister”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”1472″,”name”:”Moira Chas”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”6476″,”name”:”Monique Brouillette”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”42264″,”name”:”Mordechai Rorvig”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”10″,”name”:”Natalie Wolchover”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”37605″,”name”:”Nick Thieme”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”43298″,”name”:”Nicole Yunger Halpern”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”37428″,”name”:”Nima Arkani-Hamed”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”19962″,”name”:”Nola Taylor Redd”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”24″,”name”:”Olena Shmahalo”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”1816″,”name”:”Patrick Honner”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”84″,”name”:”Peter Byrne”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”55″,”name”:”Philip Ball”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”31″,”name”:”Pradeep Mutalik”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”24011″,”name”:”Puja Changoiwala”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”100″,”name”:”Quanta Magazine”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”2784″,”name”:”R. Douglas Fields”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”26114″,”name”:”Rachel Crowell”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”9412″,”name”:”Raleigh McElvery”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”820″,”name”:”Ramin Skibba”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”1666″,”name”:”Rebecca Boyle”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”20950″,”name”:”Richard Masland”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”48″,”name”:”Robbert Dijkgraaf”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”80″,”name”:”Roberta Kwok”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”15681″,”name”:”Robin George Andrews”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”24577″,”name”:”Rodrigo Pérez Ortega”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”78″,”name”:”Sabine Hossenfelder”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”23845″,”name”:”Samuel Velasco”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”83″,”name”:”Sarah Lewin”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”35441″,”name”:”Scott Aaronson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”76″,”name”:”Sean B. Carroll”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”15680″,”name”:”Sean Carroll”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”7239″,”name”:”Shannon Hall”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”44197″,”name”:”Sheon Han”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”65″,”name”:”Siobhan Roberts”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”5944″,”name”:”Sophia Chen”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”61″,”name”:”Steph Yin”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”63″,”name”:”Stephanie Bucklin”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”26311″,”name”:”Stephanie DeMarco”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”71″,”name”:”Stephen Ornes”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”17148″,”name”:”Steve Nadis”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”13356″,”name”:”Steven Strogatz”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”17150″,”name”:”Susan D’Agostino”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”39768″,”name”:”Tamar Lichter Blanks”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”2960″,”name”:”Tara C. Smith”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”14785″,”name”:”Thomas Lewton”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”3″,”name”:”Thomas Lin”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”54″,”name”:”Tim Vernimmen”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”88″,”name”:”Tom Siegfried”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”12964″,”name”:”Vanessa Schipani”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”53″,”name”:”Veronique Greenwood”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”86″,”name”:”Virginia Hughes”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”3244″,”name”:”Viviane Callier”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”89″,”name”:”Wynne Parry”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”15913″,”name”:”XiaoZhi Lim”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”42263″,”name”:”Yasemin Saplakoglu”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”45757″,”name”:”Zack Savitsky”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”}],”adBehavior”:”everywhere”,”adUrl”:”https://www.simonsfoundation.org/”,”adImageHome”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2021/11/SF_HP_520x684_A.png”,”adImageArticle”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2021/11/SF_article_320%E2%80%8A%C3%97%E2%80%8A550_A.png”,”adImageTablet”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2021/11/SF_newslettertablet_1780x500_A.png”,”adImageMobile”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2021/11/SF_HP_520x684_A.png”,”trackingScripts”:”\r\n<\!-- Google Tag Manager -->\r\n\r\n<\!-- End Google Tag Manager -->\r\n<\!-- Google Tag Manager (noscript) -->\r\n\r\n<\!-- End Google Tag Manager (noscript) -->\r\n\r\n”},”theme”:{“page”:{“accent”:”#ff8600″,”text”:”#1a1a1a”,”background”:”white”},”header”:{“type”:”default”,”gradient”:{“color”:”white”},”solid”:{“primary”:”#1a1a1a”,”secondary”:”#999999″,”hover”:”#ff8600″},”transparent”:{“primary”:”white”,”secondary”:”white”,”hover”:”#ff8600″}}},”redirect”:null,”fallbackImage”:{“alt”:””,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2017/04/default.gif”,”width”:1200,”height”:600,”sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2017/04/default-520×260.gif”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2017/04/default-160×160.gif”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2017/04/default-520×520.gif”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2017/04/default.gif”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2017/04/default-768×384.gif”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2017/04/default.gif”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”}},”modals”:{“loginModal”:false,”signUpModal”:false,”forgotPasswordModal”:false,”resetPasswordModal”:false,”lightboxModal”:false,”callback”:null,”props”:null},”podcast”:{“id”:null,”playing”:false,”duration”:0,”currentTime”:0},”user”:{“loggedIn”:false,”savedArticleIDs”:[],”userEmail”:””,”editor”:false},”comments”:{“open”:false},”cookies”:{“acceptedCookie”:false}},
env: {
APP_URL: ‘
NODE_ENV: ‘production’,
WP_URL: ‘
HAS_GOOGLE_ID: true,
HAS_FACEBOOK_ID: true,
},
}

Continue Reading

Recent News

NBA Playoffs NBA Playoffs
Lifestyle17 hours ago

Elevate Your Fan Experience: Must-See Moments In NBA Playoffs 2024

The NBA playoffs have reached your fingertips, and you’re excited for the rest of the season. There are several tales...

Techberry Techberry
Trading17 hours ago

Techberry Review: A Deep Dive into Next-Generation Trading Technologies

There have been significant shifts in the world of online trading in recent years, marked by technological advancements and changing...

HHC HHC
Health18 hours ago

What are the Potential Health Benefits of HHC?

You’ve heard of THC, you’ve heard of CBD, and now there’s Hexahydrocannabinol (HHC). But not as many people know about...

Women-Owned Businesses Women-Owned Businesses
Business18 hours ago

How Women-Owned Businesses Are Changing the Game

In the dynamic world of entrepreneurship, women owned businesses are not just making their mark; they are redefining the rules...

Crypto Mixers Crypto Mixers
Crypto21 hours ago

DeFi Projects and Crypto Mixers, Is There A Connection Between Them

In the digital age, when the anonymity of users is severely limited and the development process is only accelerating, the...

Rita Ora Net Worth Rita Ora Net Worth
Celebrity1 day ago

Rita Ora’s Net Worth, Career, Charity Work, and More Explored

Rita Ora is an actress and singer from Britain. She went to England when she was a little girl and...

Norman Reedus Net Worth Guide Norman Reedus Net Worth Guide
Celebrity1 day ago

Norman Reedus Net Worth Revealed

Norman Reedus’s net worth is a curiosity for all of us. Norman Reedus is one of the known personalities if...

Tim Tebow Lifestyle Tim Tebow Lifestyle
Celebrity1 day ago

Tim Tebow’s Net Worth, Career, Lifestyle, and More Revealed

Tim Tebow is an American football player, baseball player, executive producer, and businessman. His life is quite a curiosity for...

Shiloh Jolie-Pitt’s Net Worth Shiloh Jolie-Pitt’s Net Worth
Celebrity1 day ago

Shiloh Jolie-Pitt’s Net Worth, Career, Lifestyle, and More

Shiloh Jolie-Pitt can be said to be one of the well-known star kids. This is due to her parents being...

Jason Bateman Jason Bateman
Celebrity1 day ago

Jason Bateman’s Net Worth, Career, Lifestyle, and More Explored

Jason Bateman has been a household name for many of us. Now it makes us curious about how much Jason...