Similar to Epitalon, Livagen is classified as a short peptide bioregulator. Collective research on the peptide concludes that lymphocytes in the immune system, liver, and gastrointestinal tract appear to be the target of its actions. DNA and gene expression investigations suggest that it may have far-reaching direct activities. Possible anti-aging effects of the Livagen peptide include activation of GIT and immune system-enclosed genes.
Livagen Peptide, Chromatin, and The Immune System
The nucleus is where DNA is stored in eukaryotic cells. Chromatin is a condensed form of DNA and proteins that makeup chromosomes.[i] Scientific explanations summarize this: “Chromatin is the ensemble of genomic DNA and many proteins.” This DNA organization pattern facilitates the encapsulation of genetic components necessary for cell division and replication, as well as genetic components necessary for the proper fit inside cells and regulating gene expression at a systemic level. Livagen studies on aging suggest that the peptide may unpack chromatin in lymphocytes, activating genes.[ii] As a result, the ribosomal genes that regulate protein synthesis and cellular activity are indirectly activated with age.[iii] This research suggests that Livagen may have four separate potential impacts on lymphocytes:
- Modifying the activity of genes
- Decondensation assistance
- Ribosomal gene activation may lead to a rise in synthesis activity
- Helping to unwind chromatin
Researchers speculate that Livagen might modify lymphocyte expression. Lymphocytes are important immune system cells that may include T and B cells. Antibodies are produced by B cells in response to invaders. Cytokines are produced by T cells, and these cells then eliminate malignant or diseased cells. The potential for Livagen to replace these cells might lead to increasingly functional cells, which would help the organism mitigate instances of cancerous growths or other conditions.
Livagen Peptide and Aging
Changes in DNA organization, including the types of genes expressed and accessible, underlie the impacts of aging. Studies by Professor Teimuraz Lezhava suggest that chromosomal abnormalities become more severe over time.[iv] Chromosome abnormalities include chromatin condensation and reduced repair mechanisms. His findings suggest bioregulating peptides like Livagen may possibly increase longevity by promoting DNA decondensation.[v] Age is linked to pausing dysfunction, immunological dysregulation, and impaired protein synthesis.
Livagen Peptide and the Cardiovascular System
As lymphocytes are considered to play a supporting role in the heart, the organ may be susceptible to Livagen. Long-term results for models with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) may potentially be improved by addressing the dysregulation of chromatin structure in lymphocytes, which has been linked to HCM and atherosclerosis.[vi] The study authors suggest “that Livagen (characterized by modifying influence on chromatin) promotes normalization of altered genomic indicators of atherosclerosis, both alone and in combination with cobalt ions.”
Experimental research implies that decondensed chromatin in lymphocytes may release genes that may help mitigate the long-term effects of cardiac disorders.[vii] Although more study is needed, researchers speculate that the Livagen peptide may be able to support this decline. Changes in the gene expression of lymphocytes indicate that inflammation and scarring may be reduced in HCM models.
The Relationship Between Livagen and the Digestive System
Preliminary studies suggest that delta cells that have been activated may safeguard the GIT mucosal lining. This pattern is continued by the speculation that Livagen peptide may increase GIT vagal nerve signaling and alter mucosal prostaglandin and nitric oxide levels.[viii] In addition, gastroprotection may be produced, opening the door for the research of Livagen within the context of managing infectious diarrhea, inflammatory bowel illness, and the amelioration of symptoms associated with disruptions to the gastrointestinal tract. Livagen has been hypothesized to increase enkephalin levels in the blood, enhancing receptor activation.
Livagen Peptide and Pain
Natural peptide enkephalin has been speculated to exhibit dynamic analgesic action. There is data to suggest that it interacts with mu- and delta-opioid receptors. Therefore, morphine may bind to active Mu receptors to reduce pain, awareness, and blood pressure. Opiate-induced respiratory depressions may be explained by activating Delta receptors, decreasing pain perception. Experimental studies have suggested that Livagen may increase the naturally occurring hormones which act as painkillers by decreasing the activity of enzymes that degrade enkephalin.[ix] Further study is needed to ascertain its efficacy, the consequences of elevated enkephalin, and whether or not it has the same potential as other similar substances.
Although preliminary study suggests that the peptide regulator Livagen may help scientists gain insight into hitherto unexplored aspects of organismal senescence and aging, further investigation is needed. The peptide Livagen has been studied experimentally, and the results suggest that it has limited bioavailability and high absorption. The use of Livagen is restricted to research and academic settings; it is not intended for human ingestion.
[i] van Steensel B. (2011). Chromatin: constructing the big picture. The EMBO journal, 30(10), 1885–1895. https://doi.org/10.1038/emboj.2011.135
[ii] Khavinson, V. K.h, Lezhava, T. A., Monaselidze, J. G., Dzhokhadze, T. A., Dvalishvili, N. A., Bablishvili, N. K., & Ryadnova, I. Y. (2002). Effects of Livagen peptide on chromatin activation in lymphocytes from old people. Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine, 134(4), 389–392. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1021924702103
[iii] Lezhava, T., Monaselidze, J., Kadotani, T., Dvalishvili, N., & Buadze, T. (2006). Anti-aging peptide bioregulators induce reactivation of chromatin. Georgian medical news, (133), 111–115.
[iv] Lezhava T. A. (2001). Funktsional’nye osobennosti khromosom cheloveka i starenie [Human chromosome functional characteristics and aging]. Advances in gerontology = Uspekhi gerontologii, 8, 34–43.
[v] Khavinson, V. K.h, Lezhava, T. A., Monaselidze, J. R., Jokhadze, T. A., Dvalishvili, N. A., Bablishvili, N. K., & Trofimova, S. V. (2003). Peptide Epitalon activates chromatin at the old age. Neuro endocrinology letters, 24(5), 329–333.
[vi] Dzhokhadze, T. A., Buadze, T. Z.h, Gaiozishvili, M. N., Kakauridze, N. G., & Lezhava, T. A. (2014). Georgian medical news, (236), 82–86.
[vii] Lezhava, T., & Jokhadze, T. (2007). Activation of pericentromeric and telomeric heterochromatin in cultured lymphocytes from old individuals. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1100, 387–399. https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1395.043
[viii] Gyires, K., & Rónai, A. Z. (2001). Supraspinal delta- and mu-opioid receptors mediate gastric mucosal protection in the rat. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, 297(3), 1010–1015.
[ix] Kost, N. V., Sokolov, O. I.u, Gabaeva, M. V., Zolotarev, I.uA., Malinin, V. V., & Khavinson, V. K.h (2003). Vliianie novykh peptidnykh bioreguliatorov livagena i épitalona na énkefalindegradiruiushchie fermenty syvorotki krovi cheloveka [Effect of new peptide bioregulators livagen and epitalon on enkephalin-degrading enzymes in human serum]. Izvestiia Akademii nauk. Seriia biologicheskaia, (4), 427–429.
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